[Loose Leaf Pages]

Collection of 76 loose leaf pages and items comprising writing, drawing, diary pages, an exhibition catalogue and printed material from various sources. In pencil unless otherwise stated. Verso’s blank unless otherwise stated. Order based on placement as archived in Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand.

Page 1: diary pages, 81 x 52mm each, Thursday 19 - Thursday 26 January 1961 (first page torn in half), text, “postage…marm…Pastel A…Torremo…R.H. Saute…“on the Co…13.2.59…”, “envelope 1…” / “returned [illegible]”, “ Post Office 1-9”

Page 2: diary page, 81 x 52mm, Wednesday 11 - Saturday 14 January 1961, text

Page 3: diary page, 81 x 52mm, Tuesday 2 - Wednesday 3 January 1962, NOTES overleaf, text

Page 4: French diary page, 100 x 60mm, Mardi [Tuesday] 16 - Dimanche [Sunday] 21 Janvier [January] 1940, text

Page 5: printed page, 268 x 210mm, titled “Academie Ranson, 7, Rue Joseph Bara, 7”, signed “Roger Bissiere”, numbered UR 16

Page 5 overleaf: text, LR, “bossages [architectural term for protuberance or bump] / lambrisse [panelled] / voute [vault or archway] / soins [care]”

Page 6: 437 x 280mm, drawing UL corner and text, possibly Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand

Page 7: 270 x 211mm, text in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, titled “Different aspects de la peinture moderne" [Different aspects of modern painting], ink, numbered UR 32

Page 8: 270 x 211mm, text diagram in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, titled “Les peres de la peinture modern” [The fathers of modern painting], ink, numbered UR 29, overleaf numbered UR 30

Page 9: 211 x 270mm, text diagram in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, titled “Différents tempéraments” [Different attributes], ink, numbered LR 31

Page 10 (continues overleaf): 270 x 211mm, letter in French from Boris Kalachnikoff to Flora Scales, dated 15 December 1969, ink, numbered UR 25, overleaf numbered UR 26

Pages 11-14: 259 x 199mm, fine serrated edges, titled “Balzac” [probably by Flora Scales], text, numbered UR 59, 60, 61, 62

Page 15: printed page, 242 x 156mm, titled Le Fauvisme and signed [Maurice de] Vlaminck, numbered UR 34, overleaf, illustrations of four military figures, captions

Page 16: printed exhibition catalogue, 216 x 156mm, titled Picasso: Œuvre de 1900 à 1914 [Work from 1900 to 1914], Maison de la Pensée Française, Paris, France, 9 June - 28 September 1954, contains 16 leaves. Inside front cover newspaper article titled “Legally heirs of Picasso” dated 15-3-74 in artist’s hand, ink.

Pages 17-18: two glassine bags, printed with blue museum logo, overleaf text titled “Les Musées nationaux”, subtitles “Paris”, “Région Parisienne”, “Province”, text detailing Paris gallery locations. Page 17 inscribed UR 56, ink, page 18 inscribed UC 98, ink. Each bag contains a yellow paper museum ticket, “Jeu de Paume”, page 17 ticket dated 21 Nov 67, page 18 ticket dated 24 Nov 67.

Pages 19-20: two printed black and white plates, 219 x 139mm, torn from a book, contained inside glassine bag [presumed supplied by Alexander Turnbull Library], 223 x 176mm. Page 19 text “Plate 15. Cézanne: The Aqueduct, 1886”, numbered LR 33 / page 19 overleaf text “Plate 16. Gris: Flat Pattern Cubist Composition” / page 20 text “Plate 20. Chirico: Horses by the Sea”, numbered UR 35 / page 20 overleaf text “Plate 19. William Roberts: Brass Balls”.

Pages 21-24: four unknown black and white photographs of drawings and paintings, contained inside glassine bag [presumed supplied by Alexander Turnbull Library], 190 x 125mm. Page 21 seated nude, 120 x 90mm, overleaf UR 991, pencil / page 22 guitar and striped tablecloth, 120 x 90mm, overleaf UR 991, pencil / page 23 table with coffee pot, 81 x 106mm / page 24 mandolin and pot plant on round table, 106 x 81mm.

Page 25-29: 234 x 183mm, fine serrated edges, handwritten notes in English and French, titled “Studio Notes de Académie L'hôte” [pages 25-28 overleaf] and “Notes from Academie Bissiere” [page 28 overleaf - 29 overleaf] [possibly by Flora Scales], ink. Pages 26 UL and 27 overleaf LR include small head sketches, ink. Page 28 includes diagrams, ink. Page 29 overleaf includes pencil sketches of the knee joint, signed F. Scales. Each page and overleaf numbered 1-10 UR or UL. Page 25 and overleaf numbered 1-2 twice.

Page 30: 225 x 195mm, diagrams, objects, numbered UL 44

Page 31: 225 x 195mm, text, “Picasso says there are some painters who transform the sun into a yellow spot – and others who transform a yellow spot into the sun.”, numbered UR 45

Page 32: 225 x 195mm, diagrams and text, “this shows how much perspective distorts!”, numbered UR =46

Page 33: 225 x 195mm, diagrams and text, “to draw is to draw the carriers of the movements”, numbered UR 47

Page 34: 225 x 195mm, diagrams, numbered UL 48

Page 35: 225 x 195mm, diagrams, numbered UR 49

Page 36: 225 x 195mm, diagrams and text, “these axii can be static or dynamic / dynamic only axis”, numbered UR 50

Page 37: 225 x 195mm, diagrams and text, "the outline of a cube is of no real importance / Do not trust to silholits [sic silhouettes?] always try for spacial expressions!”, numbered UR 52

Page 38: 225 x 195mm, diagrams and text, “two movements to every plane / this wall is on one side to one”, numbered UR 53

Page 39: 225 x 195mm, diagrams, small drawing of a figure from behind wearing a hat UL, ink, numbered UR 54

Page 40: 225 x 195mm, diagrams, numbered UR 55

Page 41: 225 x 195mm, titled “Lecture III. Dec 1st”, diagrams and text, “a cylinder has one axis / things swing together in rythym [sic rhythm].”, numbered UR 56

Page 42: 225 x 195mm, diagrams and text, “roots of tree stumps.”, numbered UL 57

Page 42 overleaf: diagrams, numbered UR 58

Page 43: 225 x 195mm, titled “Lecture IInd Fretag [Friday] 25 1931”, text, “One reason why the old masters used a cube so much in art was because it is the only body which can take more than one axis.”, numbered UL 66

Page 44: 225 x 195mm, drawing of a colour wheel, numbered UR 67

Page 45: 225 x 195mm, titled “Lecture I”, text, “1. equation (many different moments together) 2. Must learn to understand why we like a picture!”, numbered UR 68

Page 46: 256 x 203mm, diagrams and text, “proportion of one square to proportion of an angle / this falls out because there is no line to bind it together – keeps together with the binding line”, numbered UR 72

Page 47: 253 x 217mm, titled “Jan 27th”, text, “Picasso has used the light greys of violet, lemon-yellow, red, and green, and white, (and black to bind) and they are arranged in simple sizes to harmonise.”, numbered UR 74

Page 48: 256 x 211mm, text, numbered UR 75

Page 49: 253 x 210mm, text, numbered UR 76

Page 49 overleaf: LL drawing of a figure

Page 50: 253 x 217mm, titled “Friday – Morning”, text, numbered UR 77

Page 51: 257 x 201mm, diagrams and text, “to make one square twice the size”, numbered UR 80

Page 52: 259 x 200mm, fine serrated edge, circular cut-out centre right, text, numbered UR 69

Page 52 overleaf: 259 x 200mm, fine serrated edge, circular cut-out centre right, drawing of a figure, text, “Letters of Vincent V.G. Personal letters of Van Gogh by Elizabeth Van Gogh at R. Piper & Co Verlag Munchen”, numbered LR 70

Page 53: 259 x 200mm, fine serrated edge, titled “Sunday 29th 1933”, text, numbered UR 71

Page 54: 259 x 210mm, fine serrated edge, text, numbered UR 43

Page 55: 225 x 190mm, titled “Lecture IV”, diagrams and text, numbered UR 23, overleaf numbered UR 24

Page 56: 262 x 209mm, titled “Lecture VII, Friday 20th Jan [1933]”, text, numbered UR 78

Page 57: 256 x 206mm, titled “Lecture V 5th Janvier [January] 1933, diagrams and text, “There is real proportion and the effect of real proportion.”, numbered UR 79

Page 58: 225 x 190mm, diagrams, numbered UR 21, overleaf numbered UL 22

Page 59: 225 x 190mm, diagrams and text, “A point = it moves and we get a line. A line makes a plane and a plane makes a volume and if a volume moves it makes a movement. / The front plane depends on the back plane (background)”, numbered UR 27, overleaf numbered UL 28

Page 60 - 60 overleaf: 285 x 225mm, diagrams, numbered UR 39

Page 61: 285 x 225mm, diagrams, numbered UR 40

Page 62: 272 x 210mm, diagrams, numbered UR 19

Page 62 overleaf: unknown marks, numbered UL 20

Page 63 – 63 overleaf: 272 x 208mm, diagrams, numbered UR 41, overleaf numbered UR 42

Page 64: 285 x 225mm, diagrams, numbered UR 36

Page 65 – 65 overleaf: 285 x 225mm, diagrams, numbered UR 37, overleaf numbered UR 38

Page 66: 253 x 211mm, diagrams, numbered UL 73

Page 67: 220 x 192mm, diagrams and text, “eyes on light from a torch / following the eye line”, numbered UR 17, overleaf numbered UL 18

Page 68: 225 x 190mm, diagrams and text, “distortion/stabil [stable] / equal on either side of axis. / labil [unstable] / unequal but some weight on either side of axis.”

Page 69: 225 x 206mm, diagrams, referencing colour theory, numbered UR 1, overleaf numbered UL 2

Page 70: 268 x 215mm, diagrams, referencing colour theory, numbered UR 3

Page 70 overleaf: unknown marks, numbered UL 4

Page 71: 254 x 209mm, titled “Feb 3rd 1933 Lecture VIV”, numbered UR 5, overleaf numbered UL 6

Page 72: 127 x 227mm, torn from a spiralbound notebook, 45 spirals, text, numbered UL 9

Page 72 overleaf: unknown marks

Page 73: 270 x 208mm, torn from a spiralbound notebook, approx. 54 spirals, two small diagrams labelled, “wrong way” and “right way”, text, numbered UR 12

Page 73 overleaf, faint drawing, seated figure facing right [possibly transferred from another drawing], numbered UL 13

Page 74: 270 x 207mm, torn from a spiralbound notebook, approx. 54 spirals, diagrams and text, “shades in relation to movements. / open book / you can have light shadows to tell just as well as heavy ones as illustrated above! / natural shading. / unnatural shading. / *handwriting it can and often does follow the movement! / Structure, texture and factura –”, numbered UR 10, overleaf numbered UL 11

Page 75: 270 x 208mm, torn from a spiralbound notebook, approx. 54 spirals, diagrams, figure sketched in cubes and text, “in volumes we should experience and translate in planes”, numbered UR 7, overleaf numbered UL 8

Page 76: 269 x 207mm, torn from a spiralbound notebook, approx. 54 spirals, titled "9th", text, numbered UR 14, overleaf numbered UR 15

c. 1930 1960
Object type
Medium and materials
variable on paper
Place Made
France, Germany

Page 16 inside front cover, UC on newspaper article ink 15-3-74

Pages 25-28, 28 overleaf, 29, 29 overleaf centre pencil F. Scales


Donated to the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand by H. F. V. Scales, 1979

Copyright Licence
Courtesy Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Reference no. MS-Papers-1893-2
Current Collection

Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand

Current Location

Wellington, New Zealand

General notes

Untitled [Loose Leaf Pages] [BC112], Untitled [Esquisse sketchbook] [BC118], Untitled [Colarossi sketchbook] [BC114] and Untitled [sketchbook pages] [BC113] make up the contents of a file reference number MS-Papers-1893-2, Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, and is all original material. A duplicate file, reference number MS-Papers-1893-1, is made up of Xerox copies of the original material file. The -1 file was produced to protect the original documents. Date of production is unknown. Two Xerox copy pages in the -1 file are not present in the -2 file [see Related images 1-2].

Pages roughly numbered 1-80 in pencil UL or UR, presumably by Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand staff, after its donation in 1979.

Page 1, diary pages dated Thursday 19 - Thursday 26 January 1961 include a note in the artist’s hand from a portrait class at the Heatherley School of Fine Art, London, England, led by a Mr Bevis, Wednesday 25 January 1961, and reads, “Mr. Bevis Portrait Class at Heatherly's [sic] = mark clearly position of prominent bones on the face - Important sign good composition of portrait or figure on canvas - always make small sketch in pencil carefully before proceeding to paint on the canvas.”

Page 2, diary page dated Wednesday 11 - Saturday 14 January 1961, reads, “Man in blue…portrait of Aristo or [portrait of] Titian himself convention position Rembrant [sic] had same position in his mind Titian influenced.” / “Many portraits of Titian like this one "man in Blue" "sleeve" “Adoration of the Magi" 1478-1510 by venetian giorgione. friend of Titian. Raphael "Procession Calvary" not as good as above”. “Man in blue…portrait of Aristo or [portrait of] Titian himself…” refers to Portrait of Gerolamo (?) Barbarigo by Titian (c.1510, National Gallery, London, England, inventory no. NG1944). The National Gallery entry reads “This was long believed to be a portrait of the celebrated Italian poet Ludovico Ariosto (1474–1533), and then later thought to be a self portrait by Titian. However, the man is likely to be one of Titian’s friends – a member of the aristocratic Barbarigo family.”

Page 3, diary page dated Tuesday 2 - Wednesday 3 January 1962, reads, “1304 - 1510 yrs painting / new style of painting with Leonardo 1508 Titian working with Giorgione - died plague - little known of him Givan [sic Giovanni] Bellini's studio worked there / venetian style of painting / Italy [illegible] invade by Italy - Venice Calm - Padua import. [important] town [illegible] love richnesses safety state. 1506 left studio and commissioned Giov [sic] Bellini master”, “portrait good likness [sic] suppress all bad objects! as a good ornament & decoration to a room / Palma Vecchio [illegible] picture first of all sold to private purcher's [sic purchaser's] / 60NF = £4 / 90 " " = £6”

Page 4, French diary page dated Tuesday 16 - Sunday 21 January 1940, reads, “Places to sketch in Somerset Minehead, Dunster, and Blue Anchor / Devon / Clovelly / Evelyn Redslob. 10, rue Ernest Deloison Neuilly (Seine) tel: Maillot 77-78 / Art Books Trois crises de l'art actuel [Three Crises of Contemporary Art] Camille Mauclair / et [and] Les Maitres d' Impressionism [Les Maitres de l'impressionnisme / The Masters of Impressionism] / Florence / "asprit [sic] de Formes” [Esprit des Formes / Spirit of Forms] Elie Faure / Cimabue 1240 / Constantine 313 / Giotto (Ambrogio de Bondone) Giotto di Bondone 1276  / à Rome decor l'abside de St Pierre 1298 [in Rome decorated the apse of St Peter] / 1300 St-Jean de Latran / 1301 Palais du podestat de Florence [sic Le palais du podestat à Florence / The Palace of the Podestat in Florence] / 1303 Padrone [Master], Verone [Verona], Ferrare [Ferrari], Ravenna: Pise [Pisa], Arezzo, Milan, Urbin [Urbino], Rome, Naples le virent / Florence dessiner Campanile. [Bell Tower] / Mourir [Died], le 8 janirer [sic Janvier] [8 January] 1337. / Assise eglise saint Francois [The church of St Francis in Assisi] / Compositions de Giotto “Triomphe de la Chastité” [Allegory of Chastity] “Triomphe de la Pauvreté” [Allegory of Poverty] “Triomphe de l'Obéissance” [Allegory of Obedience]”. It is assumed that Flora Scales’s was attending a lecture in French and taking notes in a sort of shorthand French.

Page 5, titled ‘Academie Ranson, 7, Rue Joseph Bara, 7’, signed Roger Bissière, translates, “Don't just throw yourself onto your paper or canvas and don't begin covering them randomly.. / Look at your model for a long time and only start drawing or painting when you know what you want to do. / Never draw a line, never place a colour without asking yourself why you are giving them such a form, such a direction, such a surface or such a colour. / If your drawing is bad, don't hope to improve it by painting - on the contrary you will only make it worse. / Do not tackle all the problems at once. Do one at a time or you will get lost in their complexity. / Painting, like drawing lives through connections. Never consider one part isolated from all the others. / Don't copy nature, make a choice among the elements that it offers you. / With nature endeavour to bring complex forms to simple ones and the closer you will come to the essential ones - cube, triangle, cone, pyramid, cylinder, circle etc…the more expressive your work will be. / Don't think that using more colours will make a more colourful painting. On the contrary the most sober palette is the most expressive. / A tone is only beautiful when it is suggested. / Learn to work logically, without relying on chance. You are in charge of your painting, never give in to its demands. / Be sincere and don't express yourself in a manner contrary to your temperament. / Recognise your qualities and your faults and make the most of them. All great artists have had the courage to realise this. / Don't try to do a "successful" drawing or painting; that has no interest. Rather look to learn something and take a step forward. / When you are constrained by these guidelines you will have a discipline and a method whereby you will avoid much trial and error. / Then, and only then you will be able to ignore these guidelines, rely on your strengths, that is to say, your own sensitivity, for as a last resort it is the heart that justifies everything and then I can no longer do anything for you.”

Roger Bissière was an instructor at the Académie Ranson 1923-1939. Flora Scales attended the school around 1936. Pages 28 overleaf – 29 overleaf, presumed by Flora Scales, titled ‘Notes from Academie Bissiere’ match the contents of page 5. This page was originally the property of Janet Paul, Art Librarian, Alexander Turnbull Library,1971-1980. In 1983 Paul permanently loaned it to the collection of Flora Scales's papers held at the library, presumably because it matched handwritten notes in the file.

Page 6, drawing UL corner and text possibly in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, reads, “la belle Angèle”, main text reads, “Froid [cold] + froid / Jaune cadmium cl. [cadmium yellow light] / vert emeraude [viridian] / noir [black] / Terre dombre [sic d'ombre] naturelle [raw umber] / froid / intensités differentes [sic différentes] intensities differences / chaud [warm] / froid / Ocre Jaune [yellow ochre] / vert em [emeraude] / noir / Terre [raw] [illegible] / neutre [neutral] / Chaud / Ocre Jaune / Terre Sienna brulee [sic brûlée] [burnt sienna] / ocre rouge [red ochre] / vermillon [vermillion] / Rouge cadmium [cadmium red] / Terre d'ombre brulee [burnt umber] / chaud / intensites differente”

Page 7, text in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, titled “Different aspects de la peinture moderne" [Different aspects of modern painting], translates, “Impressionism 1860 / monet, sisley, Pissaro / the Nabis / vuillard, serusier, 2 dimensions flat in reaction against impressionism / the Pointillists or Neo Impressionism 1886 / Signac, Seurat, Cross / the Fauves 1905 / matisse, Derain, Vlaminck / the Cubists 1907 / Braque, Picasso, juan gris / the Expressionists 1910 / Ensor, munch, Kokoschka, Rouault, soutine / the Dadaists 1916 / Picabia / the Surrealists 1923 / max Ernst, Yves Tanguy / The main trends of modern painting / Paul Klee, Kandinsky, Miró / From Orphism to Tachism 1954 / Sonia Delauney à Tobey”

Page 8, text diagram in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, titled “Les peres de la peinture modern” [The fathers of modern painting], translates, “The fathers of modern painting / Cézanne / painter / Braque / Van Gogh / literature / Picasso / marcel Duchamp / Picabia / Yves Klein / Pollock became action painter – before Pollock artists licked or painted with small touches / Action painters “big smooth gestural” the object a work of art / Rauchenberg”

Page 9, text diagram in Boris Kalachnikoff’s hand, titled “Différents tempéraments” [Different attributes], translates, “introduction to the world of shapes / light / materials / movements” Divided into 4 columns. Column 1, “cold / painful / sad / dry / crevasse / aggressive / cold colours / David”, column 2, “mild / gentle / comfortable / calm / caress / curve / nuances / manet”, column 3, “hot / stifling / oppressive / exuberant / vibration / strong / warm colours / Rubens”, column 4, “stormy / extreme / irascible / frightening / brilliance / heart-rending / violent colours / Goya”

Page 10, letter in French from Boris Kalachnikoff to Flora Scales, dated 15 December 1969, translates, “(I received the very good chocolate) / My dear godmother / I have received your letter and we are very happy to hear from you. / You have a lot of chances to be able to paint and to live in and through Art, it is a great source of hope, of hope in a better future where man would develop his creative faculties to make life more interesting and more beautiful. / I will give you some thoughts of great men / Drawing is a power to discover your own universe / “carzon” / The artist is wide awake in a world inclined to sleep / Aesthetics is the ethics of the future / Gorky / The life of men would only be just to the extent that it would be saturated with beauty. / Gorky / Nature only interests me to the extent that I can transform it / Lucien Coutaux / It takes a long time to become young / Picasso / We must be a work of art or wear a work of art / O.Wilde / I want to make sculptures that give joy to men / Brancusi / I send you love and always let me know how you are. / Until next time / Boris”. It is presumed that this letter was sent to the artist at her residence at 203 Victoria Park in London as in November 1970 she wrote a letter to the Dunedin Public Art Gallery using this address [see Timeline].

Pages 11-14, handwritten notes titled ‘Balzac’ refer to Honoré de Balzac, a French novelist and playwright (1799-1850). Assumed to be written by an unknown author and copied by Scales for her studies or records. They read, “Intellectual, the hunt in the high regions of the intelligence, is one of the greatest efforts of man. What in art is praizworthy [sic praiseworthy] is first of all courage, a courage of which the ordinary man has no conception. If the artist does not throw himself into his work as a soldier springs into battle without reflection; if he considers for an instant the difficulties instead of overcoming them one after the other, then the work remains incompleted; creation would be impossible and the artist witnesses the suicide of his talent. Steady work is the law of Art as it is of life! / In “Louis Lambert” he analyses the discoursive procedure of science as a slow consideration going up from cause to effect and down from effect to cause. Against this would then be placed Art as a higher form of perception. Art develops from an impulsive consideration of things! / Not as if the artist stood outside the world of ethics. He too has his moral but it is the moral of creation, that means the moral of developing nature, to grow and bring fruit. The artist belongs to his work. He must collect all his powers in it. The work can take rise only when it is conceived as the most important – as the only important sincere Matter of his Being. / “Magic” – In the twilight of history, there must once have happened the miracle of man arrested from fighting, playing, working, having been gripped in astonishment over his being. He reflected over his existence. In this hour was sown the seed to all that which later unfolded as Religion and Art. Man conceived himself as a being in which a force was at work. This force is a breath which could be called Soul and Life. A similar force must be in everything which has movement and life: in animals, in wind, in water, in fire, even in a stone – thus is the whole world full of powers. Innumerable powers which are related to each other compose the world. Everything is eternal flow! / The key of the number unlocks the universe; speculation becomes the mystic and the symbolic of numbers, but in numbers hides eternity. In thinking of universal unity the sphere appears as the symbol of primeval reality. The isoteric speculations of Asia, Greece and the Christian Middle ages are in accord in this. What is the sense of the sphere? Closed eternity. Universality as Unity. Truth is without beginning but limited spirit which mirrors it (truth) must set the beginning but can not comprehend it (the beginning) except as mystery or secret... / Linear thinking surely does not know this problem. When, however, this universal unity is an infinity – closed in itself – then the thinking must be a movement which is closed in itself. / In the instruction of “Frenhofer”, Balzac’s novel about the fundaments of painting refrence [sic reference] is made to the same symbols. “Frenhofer” rejects sharp outlines because bodies do not end with lines. Nature represents a consequence of roundnesses which shove one into another. Strictly taken there is no drawing. (this point of view of Balzac goes back to Delacroise [sic Delacroix] and [sentence incomplete] / Everything appears as multiplicity, but the sage knows it as unity and universality. This idea can take philosophic appearance but it is not philosophy. It shows itself as myth and mystery cult but it is not religion. The idea speaks in Art and Poetry but it is not Phantasy. It emerges in the theories of physics, chemistry, biology, but it is not science. Its source is deeper and is unified. It is a percepetual [sic] form of the spirit which is a dowery of humanity – let us call it the teaching of Universal Unity. The Universal Unity emerges in Asia, China, India, Egypt. It appears as first expression of European thinking in the nature philosophy of the archaic 1* 2* (in Hermitism and in the Cabala. But the unity is itself split up into force and appearance – into within and without and so belongs to the theorie [sic] of the universal unity, the conception of polarity.) 2* 1* Greeks, as fluent “Becoming” in the Ionic, as theorie of harmony and numbers in the Pythagorean. These counterpowers bear life. So life is a balance, a harmony, a poise. Thus the theory of universal unity becomes a number speculation.”

Page 15, titled ‘Le Fauvisme’ and signed ‘Vlaminck’ refers to Maurice de Vlaminck. The translated notes read, “Fauvism, an individualistic art was born in Chatou. / In Art, technique plays an important role, it works in connection with creation, individual originality. / It is intimately linked to means of expression. You can't express what you want to say without your own technique. / If you are a painter, technique is a personal way of using colours, spreading them out, crushing them, blending them on the canvas, organising them like a writer who chooses his words, his expressions, his vocabulary, building up a syntax. / An artisan can learn the routine of a technique, but a creative artist must develop himself. He must, as much as possible owe nothing to anyone else. An artist must recreate everything, begin everything again. / Looking at the Masters doesn't mean copying their works. / It is easier to remember the Masters than to forget them. / The technique of one person should not be the technique of another. / The "sentiment" that can be conveyed must be in liaison with the technique which allows expression. But no more than we invent ourselves, do we invent an Art. The Destiny of a work is that of a seed: as a seed, the work germinates, grows, gets bigger and flowers. / Creative qualities - the Gift- are essential, but the conditions in which they develop, the ferments which form them must not be impeded, suffocated, deviated, as it is not there that inspiration finds a meaning. / Instinct and the Gift are the only two factors on which an artist must count, the only ones on which he must rely. / During these last 15 years "Invention" in Art has been fashionable. For many, Beethoven, Wagner, Mozart, Corot, Renoir, in fact all great artists whose work appears as a homogeneous, human monument, lacked modern qualities, so-called inventive and always interchangeable. To hear these great artists they have only played the same air, painted the same woman and the same landscape! / The work of Art exists only as far as it is possible to transmit an emotion. It is qualitative, that is to say that the "quality" it potentially contains makes it rare, personal or banal, vulgar or elevated, frozen or lively. Someone doesn't just do painting, he does "his own painting". / The human work of art should touch both the masses and the cultivated person. / Everyone should find something in it for them. The reasons that make it liked, which make it sensitive, can, according to individual resonances, be different, but these dissimilar appreciations are the proof of its humanity and its life. / There is no "left wing" or "right wing" painting. An artist who considers himself right wing can do a "revolutionary" painting, as well as an artist considered left wing can do a painting worthy of the Prix de Rome. / Neither the subject nor the construction have anything to do with the personal ideas of the author, as for questions that are "political and social" : a portrait of Napoleon can be from the point of view of Art a revolutionary painting and one of Lenin a bourgeoisie one. / But if it is well understood that a work of art has nothing to prove "socially", itis certain that it must be human and lively: "an education"”

Pages 17-18, two glassine bags, containing tickets to Jeu de Paume, Paris, France, dated 21 Nov 67 and 24 Nov 67. In 1967 the Musée du Jeu de Paume was known as the Musée des Impressionnistes, an annex of the Louvre, until the opening of the Musée d’Orsay in 1986. Between 1942-1944 Jeu de Paume became a storage facility for more than 22,000 pieces of art confiscated by the Nazis from museums across France and private Jewish owners. The curator at the time, Rose Valland, secretly recorded details of stolen artworks which later led to the rediscovery of many works.

Pages 21-24, four unknown black and white photographs are presumed reference images from Flora Scales's time with E.D. Kinzinger at Hans Hofmann School of Fine Art, Munich, Germany, 1932-1933.

Pages 25-26 overleaf, read, “Studio Notes de Academie L'hôte / Treat localities in masses, all parts in the light must have light and warm shadows. Contrast a cold and warm locality Keep the picture in masses of 3 or 5 as to light and shade, colour, form etc. / Keep a light locality as light, subordinate or suppress accidental patches of a darker colour so that it remains as a whole. / Treat a dark locality the same! Keep a curve following a straight: avoid monotony. / Always have some straight lines in your picture. / Advance by warm colour recede by cold. / Consider the things which are external as the turning of the knee for instance and leave unimportant things, such as reflections. / “Clair sur sombre sombre sur clair” [Light on dark dark on light] / Do not think of the proportions but of the directions. / Build your house before you furnish it. Do not say “this is a woman, or a model, but these are lines, rounds, cylinders etc. Do not have more than four or five horizontals, verticals, curves, grand shadows etc. in one picture / Light on dark, dark on light / Composition Academi L'hôte / 1st day Dessin de partir d’après les models [Drawing from the model] / Contour / Dessin [Drawing] / Lumiere. [Light] / 2nd Jour [Day] Aggrandir le dessin sur votre toil [sic toile], organisez les clairs obscures et les ombres [Enlarge the drawing on your canvas, organize the lights, darks, and shadows]! Put the large lights and shadows last. Put red in small quantities to commence. / Have demitints in different colours jaune [yellow], vert [green], rouge [red], and oppose them as rose-violet a cote de [beside] rose-orange. / Do not compose by voids "vides" compose by forms. / Never isolate a colour, repeat it somewhere. / Oppose a straight to a curve. / Alternate light and shadow. – you must have a warm tone next to a cold one. Keep the half-tone to be a half-tone and not a shadow. / If you have not sufficient light in the figure put it in the background. / Idéale Palette / Yellows Ocre Jaune. Jaune de Mars. Cadmium. / Red Rouge de Venise. Rouge Anglais. Garances au Glacis [Madder Glaze] / Blue Outremer [Ultramarine]. Cobalt. Ceurilean [Cerulean] / Vert [Green] Vert Emerald / Violet Violet de Mars / Brun [Brown] Terra de Sienna. brulé [Burnt Sienna]. (Assez bien.) [This is enough] / Mauvaise [Wrong] Palette / yellow jaune de Naples [Naples yellow] / Blue Mineral et Prusse [and Prussia] / Vert Veronese [Veronese Green], excepte avec Blanc de Zinc [except with Zinc White]. / Violet / Brun Terre de Ombre brulé [Burnt Umber Brown]. / Destruction of pictures. / Cause of / 1. Pas assez de pâte sur un toile bon marche [Not enough paste on a cheap canvas]. / 2. Cracking, quand la coleur dessous n’est pas assez sêche [when the colour underneath is not dry enough]. / 3. Repenters Lorsque les ombres passent a travers les tous clairs [Repents When shadows pass through all lights] (putting dark over light) / 4. Blanc d’argent avec [Silver White with] / Vermillion / Vert Veronese [Veronese Green], Garance [Madder]. / Les garances doivent etre employes seulement englacis et Vermillion et Vert Veronese avec Blanc Zinc [Madders should only be used glazed and Vermillion and Veronese Green with Zinc White].”

Pages 27-28 overleaf, reads, “Composition Academie Lhote (continued) / 3rd Jour [day] Faire une petit croquis coleur [make a small coloured rough sketch]. Composition consists in an organisation of light, demi-tient [sic teint, tint] and shadow. / Begin with the lines of direction. / If you have a line necessarily broken (baroque) have a long straight line near to counteract. / Begin with a good line, then find a paralel [sic]. / Organise your picture in a “façon très précise” [very precise manner] the rest follows/ / Keep the outline of the lights and shadows. / Always oppose a warm to a cold locality / Do not have a mass of shadows moving in one direction, cut into it with a lighter tone. / Red is yellow – red in the light. / Red is violet – red in the shade. Vary the reds in a picture. / Have the lights of a different intensity. / Blue, even in the full light will be orange in tone. / Keep the light and shade in planes. / Have directions defined. / A parallel can be found to the figure in the landscape. Think and compose by the grand planes; “La ligne, la lumière” [the line, the light] / Do not repeat forms each side of the figure! Do not have two empty spaces between the figures. Do not think “this is a hand, or a hair, think that it is a light or dark locality. That it is blue, or red does not matter, it must be a large plane. / 1 part light, 2nd shadow, 3 demi-tint: But have the demitints varied – chauds et froids [warms and colds]. Let the groups each form a block. / Portrait – subject child sitting / Commence with the directions. / Principal direction to start / Find the paralel [sic]. put the curves in after. See that there is “Rythm” [sic], don’t have more than 4 or 5 directions. Have small and large dimentions [sic] side by side. Not too many small. If you can see any square or geometric form on the model which is good – grasp it! / In the face seize the line from eye to mouth always take advantage of a good line. / The Art of Composing is the placing together of objects with regard to the reaction they have the one upon the other. If necessary the form or outline of the one must be changed to adapt it to the other. The one exists for the other / So / This to this / this to this / If you have two objects say the hand and head blend them together so as to make one form. Suppress all which does not help the composition. / Rythm [sic] / Rythm is the repetition of one, or of many movements in harmony with form of the canvas. / But the repetition must not fatigue the eye. It may be necessary therefore to introduce new elements. / Rubens composed by curves. / Dominants / It is always necessary to have a dominant, which may be diagonal horizontal, vertical or curves. Always have contrast. / A Dominant Diagonal – elements regulating will be vertical, horizontal, etc. / B Dominant Curve, - elements regulating will be vertical horizontal etc and so on.

Pages 28 overleaf – 29 overleaf, titled “Notes from Academie / Bissiere [sic Bissière]” are numbered points 1-16 in French and match the contents on page 5 [translation above].

Handwritten notes such as pages 25-29 were apparently transcribed by senior students and distributed to classes. They are a strange mixture of French and English and contain numerous spelling mistakes. It is assumed these pages were copied from such notes by Scales. Neither Scales nor Gwen Knight were registered at the Académie L'hôte so it is assumed these were given to Scales by a friend or acquaintance who attended classes.

Page 29 overleaf includes pencil sketches of the knee joint, signed F. Scales.

Pages 30-45 all match in size suggesting they came from the same source.

Pages 41, 43, 45, 47, 55-57, 73 and 76 include notes from Scales’s time at the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Art, Munich, Germany, 14 October 1932 - 16 June 1933.

Page 43, titled ‘Lecture IInd Fretag [Friday] 25 1931’, possible months are September or December. Presumed September as “Lecture III” [page 41] is dated 1 December and 25 December is Christmas Day.

Page 48, reads, “An portrait of King of Spain = his feet are restlessly apart on plane [sic plain] coloured carpet. / The Poussin is very good for squares & diagonals! / Rubens copied Michael Angelo - Two Tintorettos are lovely for squares and diagonals! / In the first pictures we looked at, the red robes are painted in the gothic style. Pictures named Giotto are most probably not his work, but that of his pupils! Italian pictures here are Byzantyne [sic Byzantine] origon [sic origin] and therefore very like the Icons of Russia!! The outlines of these pictures are very simple but there is a tremendous amount of movement in each small line.”

Page 49, reads, “Notice the angle on top left of sky has a red and green robe to flow over from the green trees. look at soft cream of apostles robe on right-hand corner, low down - how it harmonises in No 663, Wolgement [Michael Wolgemut], 1434 century! / See in some of the primitive paintings the shadows eat up the colour, in others you can see the colours are more colourful where the shadows are not dark - In other paintings Rembrandt’s the shadows are rich in colour and do not eat up the light colours! / On portrait in corner No / with much dark shading the eyes have white high-lights, this is not good! / The wooden plastic No 14 century has beautiful lines from shoulder & forearm with Infant Jesus resting, & His feet and Madonna’s hands coming well out crossing on to the other side in front.”

Page 50, titled “Friday – Morning”, reads, “The drapery is very bad – it is anxious and the figure is naturalistic without the form underneath it, so you must go back to drawing with construction / Portrait / Better composed than on Tuesday, you must use the scarf round the arm to find the drawing of the arm. You cannot get all the arm in on far side, & the nearer arm is not low enough at the elbow. Look for the movement of the face & draw the cheek bones well back, wide, and in the direction in which they move to give width & to be able to look down upon the face which is lowered.”

Page 52, reads, “Cezanne broke his big planes up into many small ones in all his work. / Derain paints sometimes like Cezanne then he goes right away and paints in quite another style but still he inclines more to Cezanne & he tries for movement especially in his tries as Cezanne but he is not as strong. / Braque in his landscape keeps a light [place or plane, illegible] in middle of his canvas and binds [it by a, cut-out has removed text, see Related images 4-5] dark movement all round this is right / Modigliani keeps always to the Cezanne principals, his big planes are broken up, & has shown very strongly his movements of his sitter by the background planes & surroundings as well as the movement in shoulder, or lips in one direction move and eyes in the opposite and notice how strong his heads going back are – he always made his [illegible] from the background to his model not from himself to the sitter. / München 17th March Hofmann Schule”

A Xerox copy of page 52 in the duplicate file, reference number MS-Papers-1893-1, Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, does not have the cut-out now present on the original page. The copy shows a small square sketch [see Related images 4-6]. The discrepancy was discovered in September 2019 when A. de Lange photographed the excised original. As the page is intact in the duplicate file it would have been intact at the time of donation of the material in 1979. This suggests that the original page was altered by an unknown source since the duplicate file was produced.

Page 53, titled “Sunday 29th 1933”, describes a recipe for the making of pastels and reads, “Pastels / Traganth [sic Tragacanth] rubber (Pharmacy) or Drugstore or honey water / Milk with the cream off / cooked oatmeal through a seive [sic sieve] / tempura emulsion / 3 grams of T.R. put into a litre of water and let it stand overnight near a stove. / do not take lead white to make pastels – take zinc – white and alabaster (unburnt plaster) / T.R! 3 gms = 2 litres water = this is the binding to be used with material for pastels.”. Possible months for the date Sunday 29th 1933 are January or October. According to a document dated 29 May 2020 supplied by Anton Loeffelmeier, Head Archivist, State Archives, Munich, Scales was in Munich 14 October 1932 - 16 June 1933, making January the more likely month.

Page 54, reads, “1907 = 1914 Fauves flat simple design like wall paper / Cezanne tried to go away from it. Cub against F. (all colour) (all form) / Fraz [sic Franz] Marc – 1908-9 / Braque / Modigliani Modern Art by A Knopf / “Kubisms” [sic Kubismus] 13 Gleizes. / Der Wegzomkubismus by Damien Henry with reproductions by Braque & Derain compare Braque’s tree to Derain’s trees from 1907 to 1914 of this century Art was much better than it has been so far up to our time. Look at backgrounds on all Cezanne’s portraits, they show the line of wall (direction) and the surrounding objects give movement of rotation to the portrait.”

Pages 55, 58-59 and 68 all match in size suggesting they came from the same source.

Page 55, titled “Lecture IV”, reads, “In the early days, before Renaissance, the artists got their space by overlappings. You must be able to put cubicle experience over overlapping planes – if you cannot, the whole thing is flat!”

Page 56, titled “Lecture VII, Friday 20th Jan [1933]”, reads, “Colour / Take a triangle with vermillion on top and add black to the number of five down to pure black and you get a variety of greys. Then on the other side add your reds in five different tones to white, and you get a row of red/white. Then mix in between your triangle reds with both black and white and you get six grey colours. / Hans / Karls”

Page 72, reads, “Rembrandt put a high-light on his portraits in order to take the spectator’s eye interest away from the plain large dark background. / Matisse paintings are all three dimensional. / Le Greco painted from upwards and downwards. / Botticelli painted in large quiet masses following the pyramid grouping in his painting “The birth of Venus”. perceptive pictorial vision.”

Page 73, reads, “You cannot use colour as colour and value at the same time – must get contrast in colour only – the legs of the table are too dark red – therefore they make holes – a lighter red is right to go with light surroundings – / Hofmann Studio E.K. / On drawing a portrait. / The way it is drawn I like very much but the spaces are not well observed – from the chin (point of) to throat is a very long line so you must put your neck a long way back in order to show it, not wide at both sides because that attaches the chin to the throat. be careful of static and dynamic movement in the background with the model. / Hofmann school / E.D.K.”. Includes two small diagrams labelled, “wrong way” and “right way” which relate to Untitled [Cubist Drawing of a Seated Man] [BC098].

Page 76, titled "9th", reads, “Lesson - you must be deliberate in putting on colour - do not get colour too strong at outer border of picture: work for strengths in the centre of picture in an outward direction and then work from out, towards the centre: / EDK St Tropez / Lesson / When you are drawing upon a grey paper keep the lights of your motif in strict composition and shape, and control them for the painting which will presently be made! / Find the swinging connections between figure and background on your picture-plane / Münich / Lesson / Look for drawing of curtain in relation to swing of foreshortened arm with its movement going backwards and outward. Do not forget swing of shoulders in relation to the background.” The date for this page is assumed to be the summer of 1931 or 1932, the only years Scales and E.D. Kinzinger were simultaneously in St Tropez.


‘Becoming Modern: The paintings of Flora Scales’ by Jennifer Higgie, written for florascales.com, 2022

"Scales’s sketchbook [Untitled [Loose Leaf Pages] [BC112]]  from the early 1930s bears witness to her restless processing of Hofmann and Kinzinger’s ideas: it’s full of swift, sparse drawings of objects, buildings and the sea, overlaid or broken down with grids, arrows, lines and scribbled observations examining what she is looking at and how it might be represented. Nature, she realised, was best employed as a painterly prompt, a stimulation to the senses and to the imagination; imitation was futile."


Pages 5 and 15 kindly translated from French by Jenny Kotlarevsky

Related images